环境专员审核联邦保护鱼类免受采矿废水影响的努力

2019年4月2日,环境与可持续发展专员上任 报告2-保护采矿废水中的鱼类 (“ 报告 ”)。该报告总结了旨在保护鱼类和鱼类栖息地免受采矿废水影响的联邦监管计划的审计结果。专员由审计长任命,并就环境问题提供独立分析和建议。专员确定,总体而言,负责保护鱼类和鱼类栖息地的两个联邦部门已采取步骤来实现这一目标。但是,该报告向加拿大环境与气候变化委员会(“ ECCC ”和加拿大渔业与海洋局(“ 财务总监 ”),以改进监控,检查,报告和风险分析。

审计的时间为2009年1月至2018年11月,此前是2009年发布的一份报告,该报告确定这两个部门无法证明它们充分保护了鱼类栖息地。

采矿作业使用化学过程来提取材料,从而产生矿山废物。液体废物或废液可能包含对鱼类有害的物质,例如氰化物,锌和硒。

联邦政府 渔业法 包含保护渔业和防止任何来源(包括采矿)污染的规定。不允许钾盐,煤炭和油砂之类的非金属矿山向其中存在鱼类的水域释放任何含有有害物质的废水。但是,金属和钻石矿要遵守单独的规定, 金属和钻石采矿废水法规在某些条件下,允许金属和钻石矿山排放含有有害物质的废水。

ECCC 管理并执行《公约》的污染预防规定 渔业法 及其法规,包括 金属和钻石采矿废水法规。 采矿公司必须提交计划,以补偿采矿造成的鱼类栖息地的损失,ECCC和DFO都必须批准该计划,然后才能授予矿山废物存放或开始建设的授权。 财务总监 监视计划的实施。

审计检查了该监管系统的多个方面,专员根据调查结果提出了建议。

鱼类栖息地补偿计划: Both departments required companies to submit fish habitat compensation plans before granting them authorizations to deposit mine waste or begin construction. However, more than half of the construction-related compensation plans approved by 财务总监 missed some detailed measures to 地址 the loss of fish and fish habitats. In addition, 财务总监 monitored 90% of the compensation plans for new construction work, but only 60% of the compensation plans for those that used existing bodies of water. The Commissioner recommended that 财务总监 ensure that all fish habitat compensation plans include detailed measures to 地址 the loss of fish and fish habitats, and monitor implementation of the plans.

监测和报告采矿废水的环境影响: ECCC met its requirements to monitor metal 矿业 effluent, by requiring 矿业 companies to submit data on environmental effects, verifying its completeness and accuracy, using it to update regulations, and publically reporting on the data. However, the Commissioner recommended that ECCC publish the data with clear identification of individual mine 现场 s, and consider requiring companies to 地址 the environmental effects on fish and their habitat.

金属矿山检查: ECCC tracked inspections by company 名称 rather than mine 现场 , and conducted inspections in Ontario with much less frequency than any other 地区—an average of once every 3.6 years, compared to the national average of 1.5 years. The 报告 also found that 35% of mines did not provide complete information on effluents. While enforcement officers reviewed figures that exceeded set limits for particular substances, they did not review figures below the set limits or systematically review laboratory analysis results. The 报告 recommended changes to 地址 each of these concerns.

非金属矿山检查: ECCC 检查非金属矿的频率要比金属矿低得多:平均每2.4年检查一次,而每1.5年检查一次。尽管该部门认为需要一种基于风险的非金属矿山检查策略,但从未制定该策略。专员建议ECCC对非金属矿山进行全面的基于风险的分析,以确定检查重点,根据此分析进行检查,并按矿山类型跟踪执法活动。

执法 :根据2014年4月至2018年6月,矿业公司被要求向ECCC支付1,660万美元的罚款。 渔业法 。个人罚款从10,000美元到750万美元不等,最近趋势是更大的罚款。但是,部门通常按公司跟踪此数据。报告建议ECCC按矿场跟踪数据,以便更好地了解各个矿场的合规性。该报告还建议采取其他执法措施,例如允许执法人员处以罚款,罚单或行政罚款。这些额外的执法措施将需要立法修正。

The federal government has accepted the recommendations set out in the 报告 . ECCC has indicated that it intends to develop options to 地址 the issues flagged in the 报告 , with target completion dates in 2020 and 2021. In addition, 财务总监 has acknowledged the shortcomings identified by the Commissioner and has targeted April 2020 for implementation of a revitalized monitoring program for tailings impoundment areas.

 

渔业 矿业 环境因素

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