美国铀矿开采限制和潜在变化

美国是世界上最大的铀消费国,占全球铀供应量的25%。尽管国内铀资源丰富,但美国90%以上的铀供应是从包括加拿大,澳大利亚,哈萨克斯坦和俄罗斯在内的外国进口的。

背景

During the Cold War, for strategic purposes, the U.S. government heavily incentivized domestic uranium production to support military demands while rigorously restricting foreign imports. However, the U.S. 事件ually found itself unable to sustain its demands with domestic production alone, and other countries began producing higher quality uranium. As a result, the U.S. government eliminated existing trade embargos and domestic production of uranium subsequently declined. In 1985, domestic production had decreased to almost a quarter of what it was five years prior. 通过 2011, there were only three uranium mines operating in the U.S., and U.S. uranium production hit its lowest level in 70 years in 2018.

美国的铀矿开采限制

核监管委员会(“ NRC”)主要根据 原子能法 (“AEA”) which gives it the sole power to regulate the movement of nuclear materials within the 国家. It only governs uranium 矿业 on federal land.

今天,某些美国铀矿开采商一直在敦促政府重新制定保护性和支持性的监管措施,以振兴国内铀业。他们的重点是两个关键项目:取消联邦土地开发限制,禁止获取高级国内铀,并对外国铀实行进口限制。

联邦土地开发限制

In order to prevent excess development and environmental impacts, the U.S. federal government has attempted to restrict uranium extraction in certain areas of the 国家. One area in which uranium 矿业 has been banned is in Grand Canyon National Park. In 2012, former U.S. Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar signed the largest public land 矿业 ban in Arizona in response to environmental concerns. As a result of the ban, uranium 矿业 is now prohibited on 1 million acres surrounding Grand Canyon National Park until 2032. The Northwest Mining Association’s constitutional challenge against the ban was rejected by an Arizona federal district court, which has kept the ban in place. While uranium miners have expressed their disappointment, environmentalists fear that advancements in domestic uranium 矿业 could end necessary environmental protections.

外国铀贸易限制

In January 2018, two domestic 矿业 companies, Energy Fuels Inc. and Ur-Energy Inc., submitted a petition to the U.S. Department of Commerce to cap the amount of uranium imported from abroad. Specifically, they demanded that at least 25% of uranium sold in the U.S. be from domestic mines. In June 2018, the Department of Commerce launched an investigation into whether the reliance on foreign uranium was a national security risk. According to section 232 of the 贸易扩张法,如果认为对国家安全有必要,美国总统有权限制进口。鉴于唐纳德·特朗普总统过去曾依赖232条来对铝和钢征收关税,他可能会对铀采取同样的措施。相反,他给了美国核燃料工作组(“该组”)90天的时间,以设计其他解决方案以恢复国内铀生产。特朗普总统最近批准该小组从最初的10月10日截止日期起延长30天。

拟议的变更和结论

While the Group has not yet officially announced its recommendations, it has generally echoed the sentiments of the U.S. Department of Commerce when it 名称d uranium as a critical mineral in June. These sentiments were echoed by the Nuclear Energy Institute in a letter to the Trump administration in August. Such recommendations include lifting restrictions on uranium-rich federal lands, expediting environmental reviews for 矿业 projects, authorizing funds through the 国防生产法 采购用于国防需求的家用燃料,并增加联邦用于核动力事业的铀储备。其他建议则鼓励美国政府向国内铀生产商提供长期合同。尽管提出了这些建议,但一些专家仍在怀疑这些措施是否必要。他们特别指出,在目前的使用率下,美国的国内库存铀足以维持数十年。

即使在小组发布建议后,也不需要总裁遵守建议或在特定时间内做出回应。我们将监控审核结果并提供任何相关更新。

矿业

s

订阅

保持联系

Get the latest posts from this 博客

Please enter a valid 电子邮件 地址