纽约 State Department of Financial 服务 Issues 报告 on Online Lending

The 纽约 State Department of Financial 服务 (“ 纽约证券交易所 ”)最近发布了 网上贷款报告 (“ 报告 ”)根据调查结果和州记录来分析当前与在线借贷有关的消费者和法律问题。

The 报告 details the analysis of survey results from 35 institutions believed to engage in online lending activities in 纽约, out of 48 institutions solicited. In addition, the 报告 also references other state 报告 s and legal records to contextualize survey results. However, the 报告 notes its findings are limited by a small sample size, low response rate and fragmented quality of the responses.

获得信贷

Survey results suggest that online lending has had positive effect on access to credit. In 2017, over 235,320 borrowers received 352,171 loans in the State of 纽约, with loan amounts totalling almost $3 billion. Over $500 million was extended to 78,611 borrowers that were unbanked or underbanked. Survey responses also suggest expanded access to credit by microbusinesses and businesses in disadvantaged and financially underserved communities.

商业模式

报告发现,由于在线贷方通常不是接受存款的机构,因此其资金来源可能有限。  在线贷方倾向于采用“原始到分销”的业务模式,并出售其大部分应收款作为证券,以便及时产生收入以维持运营。

报告指出,从原始到分布模型存在风险。只要投资者购买债务证券,在线贷方便会获利,这种模型可能会抑制适当筛选贷款的动机,而不管它们是否最终是违法的(即,他们没有“游戏中的皮肤”)。鉴于资源有限,初创贷方可能特别容易遭受与使用“从原始分配模式”所产生的风险。大型,多元化的机构贷款人通常被阻止从事高风险的贷款业务,因为它们的经营资产基础更大,并且由于此类业务而遭受的负面外部影响更大。

信用评估方法

报告发现,在线贷方正在使用零散的信用评估方法。根据该报告,在线贷方倾向于使用内部评估模型和外包评估模型的不同组合。他们无法访问统一的外部数据源,其使用的数据源包括征信局,LexisNexis以及社交媒体。此外,报告指出,网上贷方似乎没有客观标准 计算贷款损失准备金。宽松的信用评估标准可能会产生不正确的信用结果,并最终导致较高的拖欠率。 消费者金融保护局也一直在咨询使用 替代信用数据

借款人披露

根据该报告,某些在线贷方还操纵披露材料,以便 吸引借款人。例如,一家在线贷方提供的金融产品包括一次性支付的养老金领取者的养老金。该贷方通过将潜在客户作为销售而非贷款进行营销,从而向潜在客户歪曲了产品的性质。在线贷方也没有透露非法利率和服务费。其他贷方还操纵产品营销,以在没有适当许可的情况下发放贷款。

辖外业务

在美国,对于非本国银行贷方,高利贷利率在州一级进行监管。  The 报告 suggests that online lenders may be structuring themselves to avoid 纽约 law restrictions on interest rates, either by using out of state 办事处 to lend to 纽约 residents or by partnering with out-of-state or federal banks. The 报告 suggests in some cases the partnerships may be largely nominal with online lenders maintaining control over all operational activities from marketing to collection.

2015年裁决 劲爆 诉Midland Funding,LLC (“ 劲爆 ”) by the Second Circuit Court of Appeals in 纽约 questioned the “valid when made” common law doctrine in the U.S. which stands for the proposition that when a loan agreement is valid when it is made it cannot be invalidated by any subsequent transfer to a third party, including for state usury laws for interest rates for loans issued by a national bank.  评论员批评了 劲爆 破坏确定贷款分配的决定。  In a 最近的报告 ,美国财政部指出 劲爆 may discourage online lenders from purchasing and attempting to collect on, sell or securitize loans made in certain jurisdictions in order to avoid litigation risk with borrowers ascertaining violations of state usury laws. As a result, some online and marketplace lenders have changed their business activities by, for example, excluding loans with borrowers from 纽约 and Connecticut from their pools of loans.

对加拿大的影响

根据最近的数据,在线贷款在加拿大的流行程度较低,但一直在增长,例如从2013年的800万美元增长到2015年的7100万美元。 报告 金融稳定委员会发布的金融科技信贷平台上 以及全球金融系统委员会。 

纽约证券交易所 提出的一些担忧与加拿大无关。 特别是在加拿大,刑事利率在联邦一级由联邦政府监管。 刑法典 而不是省一级,并且所有实体都受同一上限的约束,这意味着 劲爆 不会以相同的方式与加拿大的在线贷方直接相关。

目前尚无有关加拿大在线贷方使用信用评估方法的公开数据。 但是,在获取和/或使用信用信息的范围内,省级信用报告立法将适用(无论涉及的贷方类型如何)。 

For more information 关于 our firm’s 金融科技 expertise, please see our 金融科技集团的 页。

s

订阅

保持联系

Get the latest posts from this 博客

Please enter a valid 电子邮件 地址